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Using mobile phones to improve educational outcomes: An analysis of evidence from Asia. Van Avermaet, P. From needs to tasks: Language learning needs in a task-based approach. Van den Branden Eds. Research into teacher trainees and the way they can use mobile phones to support them in their teaching and learning.

The materials were developed for Grade 9 and 10 students in tourism vocational high schools in Turkey to be used as supplementary self-access materials supporting English learning at school. The paper provides a detailed account of the decisions taken to develop the materials as well as the pedagogical challenges that were faced during the development process. Mobile assisted language learning, Materials development Introduction Mobile learning m-learning is defined as learning anywhere and anytime.

With the availability of lightweight mobile devices such as mobile phones and personal digital assistants, mobile learning has become a popular learning medium. The former emphasizes the development of activities and learning materials in formal language learning contexts with little emphasis on human interaction while the latter focuses on design related issues to promote human interaction and independent language learning. Kukulska-Hulme and Shield conclude that MALL should support multimedia as well as collaborative listening and speaking activities.

It provides a detailed account of the decisions taken to develop the materials as well as the pedagogical challenges that were faced during the development process. The chapter concludes with a brief summary of the preliminary results regarding evaluation of the materials after they were implemented with a sample from the target audience. This definition has certain implications for the design of language learning materials, some of which were incorporated into the materials developed within the MLARG project to be discussed throughout the paper.

For the purposes of content delivery, a courseware with eight units has been developed. The content of each unit has been carefully designed in order to achieve coherence across units and continuity within each unit. For the purposes of enhancing communication and collaboration, blog, discussion, and chat tools have been integrated into the system. Target learners The materials were developed for students in Grades 9 and 10 in tourism vocational high schools in Turkey.

Since the students had exposure to formal language teaching in a school setting, the goal was to develop supplementary materials in order to support self-paced, individualized, and independent learning to practice language skills rather than teaching new content.


Thus, the main goals of the materials were to promote vocational English i. The language learning needs that emerged from the needs analysis and were considered to be relevant to the purposes of the MLARG project were as follows: The alignment of the MLARG syllabus with the 9th and 10th grade curriculum was achieved by selecting grammatical structures, functions, and domain-specific topics from the 9th and 10th grade English curriculums.

Content Description Syllabus Syllabuses represent the choices made to organize language content of a course or program Brown, Unit Structure The materials consist of units, each of which is identified with a different topic. The units are comprised of lessons. Each unit has a similar structure consisting of listening, reading, vocabulary, and language use sections. The listening skills emphasized are listening for gist and listening for specific information.

Similarly, the reading skills target reading for gist and reading for specific information. Focusing on two different sub-skills for listening and reading allows revisiting the same listening or reading text for different purposes. Input Input is the primary component of the materials design model offered by Hutchinson and Waters in developing materials for English for specific purposes. In other words, the cultural context for the given input involves the local culture so that learners use their resources to deal with language rather than unfamiliar cultural elements Alptekin, The types of input included in the MLARG materials consisted of reading texts, dialogues and monologues in the form of audio and video recordings, and visuals such as diagrams and pictures.

Input constitutes the starting point from which content and language to be taught are drawn from. The listening texts involve dialogues and monologues to illustrate the domain specific language. The dialogues were written considering the roles the target students are likely to take as service providers. Most of the listening materials present audio; there are a couple of video-based materials as well. Similarly, the reading texts were constructed considering the type of reading texts the students are likely to come across with in real life.

The texts include brochures, advertisements, leaflets, signs, and notices. Activity Types Both listening and reading activities are organized under two main categories: The former type of activities requires the students to get the overall meaning of the text whereas the latter requires providing linguistic or nonlinguistic responses to questions about the text as students listen or read.

The materials include the following exercise types that tap top-down skills: Special attention is paid to using visuals as they increase motivation to learn. The language use section aims to provide practice with both the domain specific language and the grammatical structures emphasized in a given unit.

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Activity types include multiple-choice questions, matching, and filling in sentences or dialogues. In order to facilitate communication-based collaborative activities, blog, chat, and forum tools are built into the system. The blog tool allows learners to post both text and multimedia messages. The discussion forum is used for posting text-based comments to given topics.

Design Features An important characteristic of the MALL materials in the current project is the integration of multimedia features. Multimedia is defined as the integration of different types of media in a single application. Scheiter and Gerjets identify several types of learner control. It is argued that allowing learners to control the pace of the material pace control , to choose the content and spend as much time on selected content as they need content control , to choose the order of the available topics to study sequence control , and to determine how content should be displayed, e.

Thus, the current materials incorporate different types of media along with text to present information such as audio, video, and pictures. Moreover, learners are allowed to control the pace and content. For instance, the audio and video control menu becomes active during listening for specific information so that learners can pause, play, rewind, or forward the files. Sequence control is allowed to a great extent except for the sequence listening and reading sub-skills.

Representation control is allowed where possible. For instance, reading texts incorporate multimedia glosses, which provide definitions of words and pictures associated with those words. Learners are allowed to display the type of information. Challenges Small screen size poses certain challenges in terms of controlling the cognitive load imposed on working memory resources Sweller, Therefore, the design of materials has to be carefully carried out as poorly designed instructional materials increase the load on working memory.

Unfortunately, little empirical research exists to guide the design of MALL materials. One of the challenges that have to be dealt with is the length of reading texts due to small screen size. Reading normally is a discourse level activity. Empirical research is necessary to guide the decisions regarding the choice of reading texts. Another challenge is the design of listening activities. In order to decrease the load on working memory, students should be able to see and answer the questions as they listen.

However, small screen size allows for seeing one question at a time. It is demanding for the learners to answer the question, submit the answer, and move to the next question as they listen. Usability studies should be conducted to identify an efficient user interface for such a task. The preliminary results indicate that learners have, in general, positive attitudes towards the materials.

After being exposed to the materials more than a month, they were asked what they liked and disliked about the materials. Twenty-six per cent of the students stated that accessing materials through mobile phones made learning enjoyable. Some students especially emphasized the mobility feature in that they liked being able to access the materials anytime and anywhere. On the other hand, seven per cent of the students expressed strong dislike towards being exposed to the materials though mobile phones. One student said it is not possible to acquire new knowledge from mobile phones; they should be used for practice only.

Several students complained about the slow download time and difficulty of navigation. These results suggest that MALL materials should especially incorporate practice of listening skills and presentation and practice of content through visuals such as pictures, photographs, and diagrams.


Other features of the materials that were positively evaluated by the students involve practicality, relevance, and facilitating learning. The students stated that the materials were practical because they did not involve detailed content teaching, questions required short answers, and they provided immediate feedback.

In addition, materials were perceived to be relevant by the students to their needs in that they involve vocational English. Finally, the students perceived that the materials facilitated learning because the input was comprehensible to them, the activities were challenging enough to support their English classes at school, and practice with a variety of skills such as listening, reading, and vocabulary were provided To conclude, MALL has a long way to go with empirical studies geared towards investigating the effects over learning and usability studies exploring the best possible solutions for user interface to support learning.

Cultural familiarity in inferential and literal comprehension in L2 reading. System, 34, Alexander, P. Learning from traditional and alternative texts: New conceptualization for an information age. Graesser, M. Goldman Eds. Mahwah, NJ: The elements of language curriculum: A systematic approach to program development.

Deimann, M. Volitional aspects of multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 15, — Dubin, F. Course design: Developing programs and materials for language learning. Ellis, J. Learning by design: Some criteria in EFL coursebooks. Sheldon Ed. Problems in evaluation and development pp.

The British Council. Hutchinson, T. Kramsch, C. Teaching text and context through multimedia. Language Learning and Technology, 2, 31— An overview of mobile assisted language learning: From content delivery to supported collaboration and interaction. ReCALL, 20, — Levy, M. Learning Italian via mobile SMS. Taylor and Francis. Mielo, G. The medium is the moblog. A Review of General Semantics, 62, 28— Nah, K.

The potential of using a mobile phone to access the Internet for learning EFL listening skills within a Korean contex. Plass, J. Multimedia learning in second language acquisition. Mayer Ed. Curriculum and development in language teaching. Sandberg, J. Mobile English learning: An evidence- based study with fifth graders.

Computers and Education, 57, — Scheiter, K. Educational Psychology Review, 19, — Vocabulary on the Move: Investigating an intelligent mobile phone-based vocabulary tutor. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20, 4, — Sweller, J. Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning. Cognitive Science, 12, — Thornton, P. Using mobile web and video phones in English language teaching: Projects with Japanese college students. Morrison, C. Motteram Eds. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Polytechnic University. With rapidly improving Internet capabilities, the demand for mobility has spread to education.

Mobile learning m- learning combines individualized learning with anytime and anywhere learning. MLARG is an application designed to support the learning of a foreign language. It provides course content and examinations in various formats. The purpose of this research was to identify independent and intermediary factors that could contribute to the adoption and success of MLARG.

A list of likely factors influencing adoption was developed by modifying and extending the Technology Adoption Model TAM. Feedback concerning the application was gathered from 9th grade students in a tourism vocational high school in Istanbul, the students for whom the application was intended. E-learning now comprises all forms of electronically supported teaching and learning, a new branch of which is mobile learning, also known as m-learning.

Driving the development of m-learning and the expansion of wireless communication is the increasing processing power and the enhanced technical features of handheld devices. M-learning is not hampered by inefficient classroom equipment and the difficulties of accessibility associated with traditional classroom instruction Karagiannidis et al.

Mobile technologies have become indispensable because they connect us to vast numbers of information sources and enable instant and ubiquitous communication. By the end of , there were 5. Figure 1. Mobile connection over 3G modems is 2. The total number of mobile Internet users increased to 1. Considering the 16,, students in formal education and the 7,, students in non-formal education as of —10 , the use of mobile technologies for learning offers great potential Ministry of National Education, Another is the rapid development of mobile phone technology in the past 10 years, from plain and simple cell phones to the current high-tech devices that can serve as a PDA, mini-computer, camera, video and audio recorder in addition to being a telephone.

There is a stream of new technology breaking into the mobile phone market Hashemi et al. New multimedia applications allow learners to have access to a wide variety of richly diversified resources Hashemi et al. The new mobile devices must meet three criteria: They must have communication and information functions, they must be carried easily, and for extended periods of time they must be functional without a physical connection to power or to a telecommunications provider Hashemi et al.

Using one easily operated device, learners can get information about courses, attend exams, download notes, and share information. Mobile learning is more spontaneous than other learning types and this spontaneity is probably the most defining characteristic of mobile learning. Usually, only one learner at a time has access to the mobile device. The learners are not passive; the functions of mobile tools and environments allow varying levels of interactivity.

It provides quick answers to specific questions Cohen, Although all of these characteristics are advantageous, we should keep in mind that m-learning devices may also have some disadvantages. The screen size of mobile phones and PDAs limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed. Lack of a common operating system and common hardware make it difficult to develop common software. Under pressure from a large number of users, wireless bandwidth may degrade Hashemi et al. The use of mobile technologies in language teaching has received a lot of attention, resulting in research studies pertaining to mobile assisted language learning MALL.

The project is both innovative in its use of mobile technology in foreign language education and inclusive in that it is designed for young people at risk. The focus on m-learning is justified by the project team as follows: Since the participants are given the use of m-learning devices during the implementation of the project, it is believed that the resulting feeling of being valued will lead to increased self-esteem and self-confidence. The purpose of the research was to identify independent and intermediary factors contributing to the adoption and success of the innovation.

Before and after feedback via surveys was intended to guide modifications to the design for better implementation and quality of service. Literature Review A number of theories attempt to explain the process of adopting a new technology. Behavioral intention is a measure of the strength of intention. It emphasizes two theoretical constructs, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are considered to be fundamental determinants Davis, Altogether, TAM includes five constructs: Figure 2.

We used an extended list of factors in addition to those used in TAM see Table 1. Table 1. Attitude Towards Use significantly and positively influences Satisfaction 2. Perceived Usefulness significantly and positively influences Satisfaction 3. Framework of the proposed model 4. Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness predict attitudes toward use of innovative technology Davis, Based on this evidence, we hypothesize: External Influence significantly and positively influences Attitude Towards Use Social influence constitutes the degree to which individuals perceive that significant others approve the use of an innovation Venkatesh et al.

Openness may be inferred by the presence of systems that reward innovation and risk taking, and by evaluating the perceptions and attitudes of personnel toward innovation, change, and performance. Organizational incentive systems can be used to control and facilitate the use of information. Facilitating Conditions significantly and positively influence Attitude Towards Use Facilitating conditions in the adoption environment refer to external controls intended to facilitate the adoption and diffusion of new technologies.

Facilitating conditions are important because they are considered to be direct antecedents, and therefore are likely to facilitate adoption behavior by removing obstacles and acting to sustain usage Venkatesh et al. Perceived Ease of Use significantly and positively influences Perceived Usefulness Perceived ease of use may contribute to performance, and therefore, in the short term, contribute to perceived usefulness. However, Keil, Beranek, and Konsynski concluded in their study that no amount of ease of use will compensate for low usefulness.

Mobility significantly and positively influences Perceived Usefulness To have real-time information and to keep in touch with colleagues, family, and friends, mobility is essential. Personal Innovativeness significantly and positively influences Perceived Ease of Use Innovativeness is defined as the extent to which an individual, when compared to others, is early to adopt new ideas Rogers, A growing set of IS literature indicates that personal innovativeness is a significant predictor for perceived ease of use Lu et al.

User Interface significantly and positively influences Perceived Ease of Use Consideration of relatively small screens and miniaturized keypads may adversely affect usage. This suggests that input and output devices are likely to influence perceived ease of use Pagani, Pagani argues that response time affects perceived ease of use and that mobile bandwidth, therefore, also becomes important.

Results and Discussion Participants in the study were eighty one 9th grade students in a tourism vocational high school in Istanbul, Development of the questionnaire was guided by information derived from the literature and from interviews with pioneering students who had early experience of M-LARG. Of the 81 respondents, A majority reported that they feel no stress when adopting new ideas and would be more eager to use an application if they thought that they would get support when encountering problems.

The screen size and the design of the application fonts, menus, colors etc. Usefulness and facilitating conditions were critical factors for attitude toward use. The results indicate that ease of use does not affect either attitude toward use or usefulness. They were more eager to use the application if they thought they would get support and they believed that the application would have a positive effect on their learning. Table 2. Stepwise linear regression was used to obtain the results, a summary of which is displayed in Table 3.

Table 3. Figure 4 shows the structural relationships in the model. Unsupported hypotheses are shown with dashed lines. Usefulness and facilitating conditions are direct determinants of attitude toward use, whereas external influence and reward are Figure 4. Among all constructs, usefulness has the strongest influence on attitude toward use, as supported with a high beta coefficient 0. Contrary to the proposed model, mobility and peer influence have no influence on usefulness. Although there are other text-based applications available to mobile phone users, such as dictionaries and translators, the respondents could not have experienced the sort of comprehensive application suitable for foreign language learning.

On the other hand, it was learned that external influence, facilitating conditions, and reward are the determinants of usefulness. The model shows that computer self-efficacy has a strong influence on ease of use. Although personal innovativeness and user interface were proposed determinants of ease of use, the study shows that they have no such influence—not a surprise since the students had no previous experience of the application.

Conclusion Our intention was to identify the independent and intermediary factors that contribute to the adoption and success of a mobile learning application and to measure the weight of their influence on attitude toward use. We observed that usefulness and facilitating conditions are the key determinants of attitude toward use. External influence, reward, and facilitating conditions are critical factors influencing perceived usefulness; but contrary to the literature, ease of use in this study had no influence on perceived usefulness. According to these results, computer self-efficacy is the only determinant of perceived ease of use.

The major limitation of the study is its emphasis on attitude toward the use of m- learning in the absence of actual use. In addition, the results should not be generalized to users or potential users in other age groups or users from other cultural backgrounds. In future, we intend to administer the questionnaire, with an extended set of items, to the same subjects after they have actually used the m-learning application MLARG.

References Ajzen, I. Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Bandura, A. Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84 2 , — Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency.

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American Psychologist, 37 2 , — Handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer Publishing. An experiment in using SMS to support learning new English language words.

British Journal of Educational Technology, 40 1 , 78— Improving critical thinking skills in mobile learning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1 1 , — From mobile learning to pervasive learning. Cohen, A. Characteristics of effective mobile learning. Condos, C. Aslib Proceedings, 54 6 , — Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology.

MIS Quarterly, 13 3 , — Investigating mobile devices integration in higher education in Cyprus: Faculty perspectives. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 3 1 , Evans, C. The effectiveness of M-Learning in the form of podcast revision lectures in higher education.

Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Hashemi, M. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, — What is mobile learning? Challenges and capabilities. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, — Taming the mega-lecture: Wireless quizzing. Syllabus Magazine, 7—8. Critical factors of WAP service adoption: Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 2 1 , 42— Turkish Electronic Communication Sector: Report On First Quarter of OECD Publishing.

Julnes, P. Promoting the utilization of performance measures in public organizations: Public Administration Review, 61 6 , — M-learning and m-commerce in pervasive environments. Adoption factors of mobile services. Usefulness and ease of use: Field study evidence regarding task considerations.

Decision Support Systems, 13 1 , 75— Compliance, identification, and internalization: Three processes of attitude change. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2, 51— Kleinrock, L. Anytime, anywhere in a disconnected world. Mobile Networks and Applications, 1 4 , Lan, Y. Using RSS to support mobile learning based on media richness theory. The technology acceptance model and the world wide web. Decision Support Systems, 29, — Personal innovativeness, social influences and adoption of wireless internet services via mobile technology.

The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 14 3 , — Technology acceptance model for wireless internet. Internet Research, 13 3 , Exploring consumer adoption of mobile payments—a qualitative study. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 16 4 , — The impact of use situation and mobility on the acceptance of mobile ticketing services.

Ministry of National Education, Republic of Turkey National Education Statistics: Formal Education — Nagella U. Adaptive approaches to context aware mobile learning applications. International Journal of Computer Science and Security, 2 2 , 15— Basic elements and characteristics of mobile learning. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 28, — Determinants of adoption of third generation mobile multimedia services. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18 3 , Diffusion of innovations 4th ed. Mobile learning in teacher training.

Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19, — Information Society Statistics For Turkey. Suo, Y. Towards blended learning environment based on pervasive computing technologies. Teo, T. Adoption of wap-enabled mobile phones among internet users. Omega, 31 6 , A conceptual framework and propositions for the acceptance of mobile services.

Uzunboylu, H. Using mobile learning to increase environmental awareness. Lifelong learning organizers: Requirements for tools for supporting episodic and semantic learning. Venkatesh, V. User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27 3 , — Venkatesh V. Four longitudinal field studies. Management Science, 46 2 , — Gender, social influence, and their role in technology acceptance and usage behavior.

MIS Quarterly, 24 1 , — A unified view. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Minnesota, USA. A model of the antecedents of perceived ease of use: Development and test. Decision Sciences, 27, — Modeling the determinants of perceived ease of use. Vinu, P. Towards pervasive mobile learning—the vision of 21st century. Mobile educational features in authoring tools for personalized tutoring. Yi, W. Investigating the determinants and age and gender differences in the acceptance of mobile learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40 1 , A new model for predicting behavioral intentions: An alternative to Fishbein.

Journal of Marketing Research, 17 2 , — Delivery of personalized and adaptive content to mobile devices: A framework and enabling technology. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 12, — We have defined new elements for the IMS platform to make the learning system useful for end users teachers, students, trainees. The system and functional architecture with a detailed description of the functional entities is also presented.

Both areas are described for providing the background of the addressed environment of mobile learning. The results of the multi-device mobile access to M-learning platforms are also presented in this article. These networks can offer a wide portfolio of new services, especially high quality multimedia services that can also be used in the learning sphere. Learning is a very complex and complicated process. Effective teaching often requires a huge amount of information media. The IMS provides technical solutions for offering multimedia sources like plain text, formatted text, images, audio tracks, video tracks, animations, 3D models and so forth.

These sources are only a subset of all available sources. In real life, many more learning resources can exist, but if it is not possible to transfer them to a digital form, they cannot be used in IMS. Multimedia can offer much easier access to learning materials for a wide range of people, independent of age, mobility, place, country, or income. Classroom and lab training Expert to consult Online open problems training Tutors e-libraries Multimedia Teaching Content Environment for databases Social Communities networks communication and cooperation Figure 1. It should provide: Enhanced ICT Platform Architectures In the past ten years the evolution processes in the area of ICT have led to enhanced network architectures, which are based on the idea of the integration of all existing types of networks to one converged network — the NGN Next Generation Network.

Various architecture concepts of the NGN have been defined and have been standardised by working groups of standardisation institutions. The NGN platform is an environment infrastructure, protocols, etc. When we take into account the customer requirements actual and expected in the area of multimedia services and applications real time and non-real time services, fixed and wireless services , then it is necessary both to use effectively the capabilities provided by the NGN platform, whereby independency of services from the NGN platform is preserved and to develop the appropriate service architecture and interfaces supporting the communication between different segments of the network platform.

One of the advantages of the NGN platform is the comfortable and flexible access to and control of multimedia services. Further advantages are the sharing of multimedia services and applications implemented at the NGN platform application layer and the modular structure of the application layer. At the same time the NGN should provide the effective interface for service development, service provision and management. The IMS is based on the IP architecture for multimedia and it was placed as a supporting network element to provide standardised and universal services for mobile users.

The flexible and modular structure of NGN architectures enables the flexible modifications and extensions of the application layer and modifications and extensions of the IMS core subsystem. In the ngnlab. This platform has been continually extended by new subsystems supporting the services and applications implemented at the application layer of IMS NGN Lab. The conception of the application layer of this Lab platform consists of a set of services and applications subsystems Figure 2: Figure 3.

The main task of the SDF is to provide personalized service discovery while the SSF provides the service selection information, e. The MDF can be used also for transcoding of specific device requirements. The MDF stores frequently used content cache and user specific content.

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The NGNLab. Standard e-learning platforms are usually based on the application of a Learning Management System LMS which manages the access to training courses most often based on HTML applications placed on the LMS platform and supports further processes joined with e-learning. The application of different types of multimedia sources in the training process is also possible, but it is not so easy to manage access to them e.

To use and share various multimedia sources effectively in the training process like high quality multimedia materials storing on the IPTV server, VoIP applications, WEB applications, etc. The main target is to develop a unified interface for both teachers and students. This effort must be supported by new elements, which extend the existing IMS architecture. This is a set of functions needed for deployment of new content to the correct functional and system element of IMS.

These functions are responsible for the correct deployment and provisioning setup. LCDF is also responsible for the management of existing content and profiles. Because there is no standardized interface for the management of IMS elements, proprietary management must be used for it. All data will be transferred by SOAP. The content will be first uploaded to a shared folder, and afterward processed with a SOAP command. The deployment of content is different for each content type. Deployment of Content on Demand CoD. CoD is mostly stored in the big disc arrays in the network of the operator.

The LCDF must then take content from operator, adapt it to required parameters codec, bit rate, etc. Then it must contact the management interface of CoD MDF and submit information about this content to it. The LCDF then must contact these elements and put this data and parameters to it. In the IMS network, because there can be a huge number of end user devices with different capabilities and screens, it is necessary to deploy video content in more profiles. It is recommended to define the closed group of profiles at the beginning and then transcode all content in all profiles and deploy it.

Deployment of Live Lectures.

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Live lectures are organized from a desktop, but first, it is necessary to deploy live streams from camera s like new channels to the IPTV system, and arrange permissions for students. The text and images can be stored directly in storage, from where it will be served to students by the WEB server. The text will be stored in HTML format.

The LCDF must support all content management functions. The LCDF must also be able to adapt all html formatted text to different formats, which are acceptable by end user devices, e. MMS for mobiles images must be adapted to some predefined formats. In the past, the processor power was not big enough to draw vector graphics, but today devices have no problem in drawing vector graphics; furthermore, these graphic files can be plain text e. So the recommendation is to use vector graphics images because they can be adapted to all screen resolutions very easily without losing quality.

The LCWEB server has access to text content storage and serves it to students via http or https protocol. Since it is necessary to limit access to this content, the web server requires authentication using SIP account and check access to content, based on the Home Subscriber Server HSS profile of the authenticated user. To improve the normal HTML browser for learning purpose it is necessary to extend normal protocol tags in order to link to content, link to bookmarks, link to conferences, link to a shared desktop only for lectures.

The text content can then be read by the student. At any point there can be a link or an embedded object. This link can take a student to the CoD and show him a video. The links can also take a student to a bookmark, which is a time point in certain CoD content. Focusing on the user view, the main purpose of this server is to provide call features, e. From the provider perspective the server consists of the following main parts: SIP Application server. This server concerns conference policy and plays the role of Back-to-Back User Agent B2BUA , which is necessary for the supervision of live sessions and for the conference features.

If a teacher wants to create live session, a call requisition can be sent to all of the required participants. It means that the phones of participants will ring and when the participant answers, a voice announcement will be played. Subsequently, by pressing a chosen key the participant can accept or reject the invitation. This case uses a loosely coupled conference. This means the conference is without coordinated signaling relationships amongst participants.

Loosely coupled conferences are used especially for distribution of multicasts to all required parties or participants Rosenberg, Users or participants who want to join a session can also use the so-called conference Universal Resource Identifier URI. It uses a tightly coupled conference scenario in which a teacher, referred to as a focus, maintains a dialog with each participant in the lesson. The focus plays the role of the centralized manager of the conference.

This server also provides media resource related functions. These functions are logically separated in IMS architecture, but they can also be components of application nodes. Conference Bridge. The conference bridge is responsible for delivering of the above- mentioned RTP streams. The conference bridge features are provided by the MRFC. If users have UE with camera devices, then video streams can also be mixed and delivered to all participants.

Lecture messaging and presence server. This server is mainly responsible for all features related to messaging services. It allows users to communicate with each other during a session without interrupting a live video or audio stream. Messaging services are very useful in putting questions to presenters teachers if live streaming is used. The presence service is mainly important for seeing who is online and attending a lecture. In other words, it provides conference notification services, accepts subscriptions from participants, and generates notifications to all of them.

For the purpose of learning, only delegated users can have access to the conference, so anonymous users will be not accepted. There is an IMS based conferencing architecture depicted in Figure 5. Figure 5. To manage the lecture, the teacher must use some device PC for the management of content flow. The LMF is the actor of all commands. The LMD is the only place where the teacher can get information from students during the lecture.

The LMD is also the source of the video stream for the shared desktop. The Lecture Management Function is a server responsible for managing of all application services that are used in the created lesson. Services are hosted on separate application servers: According to the preferences indicated, the server will manage the lesson for users who are assigned by the LMD. Note that the server is not communicating with the Home Subscriber Server HSS directly because corresponding servers have a direct access to user profiles. All user-related data that are needed for authenticating the user to the service are stored on the HSS only, but the application data related to the specific service can be stored on the server where the service is hosted.

Mobile End User Devices for M-Learning In the process of the training based on m-learning, it is necessary to take into account the suitable selection of the mobile end user mobile device. Within the process of the analysis of end user mobile devices, all categories of these devices which can be connected to mobile networks have been tested and evaluated.

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From each category the set of products was selected for the testing process. The categorisation of end user mobile devices was created from the point of view of: Based on the testing process, the recommendations for the selection of the suitable end user mobile devices for on-line m-learning for the LdV MLARG course were done and the results are introduced in the Table 1. Use Cases Use Case 1: One of the main project objectives is to propose and implement the m-learning platform for providing and managing courses.

During the implementation of the developed language units to the MLE Moodle platform and the testing of individual training units, a problem with access to audio and video streams was detected. The MLE Moodle does not support direct access to audio and video streams.

To solve this problem we decided to use the NGNLab. Figure 4. These files are available to students directly from the on-line English course via links. Figure 6b and Figure 6c illustrate the screen shots of the video file. Sea coast holiday Hotel Reception a b c Figure 6. In the case of the NGNLab.

Use case 3: Some Examples Virtual Training. But this configuration of networked Labs can offer additional multimedia sources related to the given training course, which are distributed in individual networked Labs. All these multimedia sources can be shared with all training process participants independently of the end user access point. Practical Exercises Based on Remote Access. Teachers, students and other users can have remote access to NGNLab. These practical exercises were focused on the analysis and testing of selected NGN protocols.

The tutor in the NGNLab. The communication tools videoconferencing of the NGNLab. Conclusions The enhanced ICT and NGN architectures create conditions for providing the wide portfolio of new multimedia services and applications. In our work, we have not focused our research activities to define all interfaces regarding management of IPTV in details.

We defined entities and protocols between them. It would be good to describe the concrete parameters of the SOAP protocol. Acknowledgment This paper presents some of the results and acquired knowledge and experience from the various research and educational projects: The research and educational activities were supported by the above-mentioned projects. References 3GPP. TS Heidkamp, B. Telecommunication Systems. Kadlic, R. Grgic, K. Ghanbari Eds. TridentCom Washington, DC. Architecture and Standardization.

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